Burnout is a worldwide health issue that affects healthcare providers such as nurses, physicians, and others. It arises from long-term stress in the workplace and includes frequent absences from work, a tendency to leave the profession, decreased self-esteem, and drug abuse, among other symptoms.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has officially classified burnout as a syndrome. It was first applied to healthcare workers (HCWs) by Freudenberger in 1974.
Its consequences are closely associated with a reduced level of patient care, an increased incidence of medical errors, and lower patient safety. To fight against burnout, healthcare professionals must understand its causes, recognize its signs and symptoms, and implement strategies to manage and overcome it. By doing so, they can reignite their passion for their work and provide the highest level of care to their patients.
Studies conducted in the United States have shown that 54% of physicians, 35% of hospital nurses, and 35.2% of medical students report experiencing burnout. Similar rates of burnout among healthcare providers have also been reported in other high-income countries.
1.1 Importance of Addressing Burnout Among Healthcare Professionals
Addressing burnout in healthcare is essential for ensuring the well-being of healthcare professionals, maintaining high-quality patient care, and promoting a healthy and sustainable healthcare system.
Breaking Down Burnout: Insights into the Causes, Symptoms, And Solutions
Burnout is a psychological syndrome that involves emotional exhaustion, feelings of helplessness, depersonalization (feelings of detachment from one’s job), negative attitudes towards work and life, and reduced personal accomplishment.
Burnout is a critical issue among healthcare providers (HCPs) that can lead to severe manifestations, including various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse, as well as suicidal thoughts. It is also linked with personal issues such as divorce, broken relationships, and alcoholism.
2.1 Burnout at the Breaking Point: Understanding the Root Causes
Burnout is a tragic paradox because those who are most dedicated, responsible, and motivated are often the most susceptible. For example, surgeons who possess a commitment to patients, are also at a higher risk of burnout. Burnout is associated with interpersonal and professional conflicts among healthcare providers, including doctor/doctor, doctor/nurse, work/family, and interpersonal conflicts in general. The causes of burnout vary and can include the number of years of work experience, the number of working hours per week, the frequency of night shifts, and working over the weekends. In recent years, digital technologies have played a role in providing health services. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians have had to spend more time entering data into electronic health record (EHR) systems instead of providing health services to patients. This has resulted in spending more time at the hospital and away from their families, potentially causing burnout.
2.2 Signs and Symptoms Of Burnout
The three main symptoms of burnout are:
- Feeling drained of energy or experiencing fatigue
- Feeling mentally distant from one’s work, or experiencing negative about it
- Decrease in professional effectiveness
2.3 Risk Factors For Burnout In Healthcare Professionals
- Workload: Healthcare professionals are often required to work long hours and have heavy workloads, which can contribute to burnout.
- Lack of control: Healthcare professionals may feel like they have little control over their work environment, which can lead to feelings of frustration and burnout.
- Lack of support: Healthcare professionals who feel unsupported by their colleagues or management may be more likely to experience burnout.
- Personal factors: Personal factors such as a lack of work-life balance, financial stress, or personal life challenges can also contribute to burnout.
It’s important to note that burnout is a complex issue, and different individuals may be impacted by different risk factors. By identifying and addressing these risk factors, healthcare organizations can take steps to prevent and mitigate burnout in their staff.
Understanding the Impact of Burnout on Healthcare Professionals
Effect on physical health/mental health: Numerous studies have shown that healthcare professionals with burnout may have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and experiencing premature mortality. Additionally, if left untreated over time, burnout can lead to increased levels of mental stress, depression, and even suicidal thoughts among healthcare professionals.
A study conducted at Johns Hopkins University involving over 1300 male physicians found that 12.8% of them had experienced clinically significant depression in their lifetime. Similarly, in the Women Physicians’ Health Study involving 4500 female physicians, 19.5% reported experiencing clinically significant depression in their lifetime. While the lifetime rates of depression among physicians seem to be comparable to those of the general population, suicide is a disproportionately high cause of mortality among physicians.
- Effects on work performance: Research has indicated that physicians with burnout are more likely to report feeling dissatisfied with their careers and have a greater intention to leave the medical profession. The impact of burnout extends beyond the individual physician and can also affect the functionality of the entire healthcare system.
- Effect on patient care: Increasing evidence suggests that physician burnout can adversely affect patient safety and the quality of patient care and may contribute to medical errors.
- Effect on economic well-being: Furthermore, physician burnout poses a significant risk to the economic well-being of healthcare organizations. Burnout can lead to decreased productivity among physicians, which in turn can negatively impact the organization’s economy.
- Effects on the personal relationships: Physicians have a higher likelihood of getting divorced compared to the general population. Studies have found that higher levels of anger and getting married before graduating from medical school were associated with higher divorce rates among physicians.
A large prospective study that followed 1118 married physicians found that the cumulative incidence of divorce after 30 years of marriage was 29%. The study also revealed that the choice of speciality was independently linked to the risk of divorce, with surgeons having the highest rate (33% after 30 years) followed by psychiatrists (50% after 30 years).
Strategies for Managing and Overcoming Burnout
4.1. Strategies to Prevent Burnout Among Healthcare Professionals
While it is possible to recover from burnout, a better strategy is prevention. Physicians who prioritize and protect their personal and professional well-being in all aspects, including physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual, are more likely to prevent burnout or minimize its effects.
- Promoting Work-Life Balance: Maintaining a proper balance between work and social life is a crucial factor in preventing burnout among medical professionals. In addition to this, interacting with family members and loved ones, as well as receiving social support from them, are also effective measures for reducing burnout.
- Providing support and resources: To prevent or reduce burnout, effective techniques include improving work schedules, promoting self-management, teaching physical, mental, and emotional self-care, and implementing mindfulness-based stress control activities. However, these techniques will only have a significant impact if they are supported by the organization and provided with the necessary resources. Even with proper resources, there may only be a slight decrease in the likelihood of burnout.
- Encouraging self-care: Engaging in activities that promote happiness, regular exercise, staying hydrated by drinking water, and getting sufficient rest, developing a personal self-cheering method, practising self-motivation techniques, and increasing the frequency of daily yoga can boost immunity and help prevent burnout. Implementing simple measures such as providing a rest area and the option to take a shower at the workplace can be effective.
4.2. Coping Strategies For Healthcare Professionals Experiencing Burnout
- Seeking professional help: The significance of mentorship cannot be neglected. Seeking professional assistance and attending regular counselling sessions with stress management professionals can also be used to reduce burnout among healthcare professionals who are affected by it.
- Talking to colleagues or mentors: Effective communication is an essential tool for reducing stress and other mental health conditions. The use of digital technologies, such as mobile applications and social media, can help provide mental health services and increase the empowerment of healthcare professionals. Engaging in discussions about concerns with colleagues and friends through web-based social media is a suitable way to stress. In addition, using digital communication platforms like WhatsApp enables physicians to access each other more easily, share information, and have immediate access to valid and updated information.
4.3 Organizational Approaches To Address Burnout:
Promoting personal wellness throughout the entire professional life cycle of physicians, from medical school through retirement, is crucial. This requires promoting a balance of physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual well-being, which is a challenge that must be addressed not only by individual physicians but also by professional organizations and workplaces. It is important to change behaviours that may contribute to burnout and adopt healthier habits.
Creating a positive work environment and encouraging teamwork and communication: By providing an overall positive work environment to the healthcare providers the organizations can boost their economy and be able to make a proper balance between the staff. Studies have shown that workplace actions or measures can directly impact the reduction of burnout scores. Along with individual actions, measures to improve the workplace and create a positive work environment can significantly promote work culture and reduce workplace stress.
Organizational strategies that can help reduce burnout include improving workflow management, improving communication skills, arranging discussion meetings, holding workshops on coping skills, adjusting schedules to decrease clinical demand, and promoting teamwork.
Social interactions among HCPs are effective in reducing burnout. However, wearing personal protection and face protection equipment can make it difficult to recognize individuals and may lead to a deterioration of interpersonal relationships and interactions. To address this issue, it has been recommended to install photos of staff members on their clothing to help improve recognition and maintain social connections.
By conducting regular assessments, the organization can find out where are the highest chances of burnout and what are the reasons for burnout in that area. After identifying this they can take proper steps to eliminate burnout among healthcare providers.
The organization must provide the proper resources for the management of burnout, such as mental health services, employee assistance programs, and stress reduction training. Healthcare organizations may also support their staff in prioritizing their well-being by promoting a healthy work-life balance, offering flexible schedules, and creating opportunities for self-care activities such as exercise, meditation, and mindfulness practices.
Providing training and education on burnout: Increasing awareness and providing education and training on burnout can have several benefits. Firstly, individuals can become more aware of the causes and symptoms of burnout, enabling them to recognize it in themselves and others. This can then lead to taking appropriate steps to prevent or address burnout. Secondly, training and education can help individuals develop coping strategies to manage stress, thereby reducing the likelihood of burnout.
Moreover, organizations can benefit from providing training and education on burnout as it can lead to increased productivity. Burnout often results in decreased productivity, and by helping employees manage stress and prevent burnout, organizations can improve overall performance. Additionally, providing support and resources to prevent burnout can improve employee morale and job satisfaction, leading to better retention rates and reducing the costs associated with high employee turnover.
Addressing burnout in healthcare is helpful in the proper functioning of the healthcare system, increased patient care, promoting self-well-being, enhancing the overall productivity of the organization, fewer chances of medical errors, and helpful maintaining good relationships among staff and doctors and doctors and patients. When healthcare organizations take proactive measures to prevent and alleviate burnout, they can cultivate a work environment that is healthier, more productive, and sustainable for their staff.
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