Fructose and Glucose are two sugars which have the same calorific value, yet are different from each other in several ways. Fructose is a simple sugar mostly found in fruits and vegetables. Glucose however is known as blood sugar and is found in all major carbohydrates such as table sugar, starch etc. Here, we will take a look on some of the major differences between fructose and glucose.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences Worth Knowing
Fructose Vs Glucose: Basic Difference
Fructose is simple keto sugar which is also known as fruit sugar as it is mostly found in many plants. It is the most reactive and also most water soluble sugar as compared to other natural sugars. Fructose can be isolated from tree, vine fruits, flowers, honey, root vegetables, berry etc. It is primarily important for beverage industries as well as bakery products as it aids in enhancing palatability and taste and also contributes in color development.
Glucose is primarily known as grape sugar. It is the major output of the process of photosynthesis, where water and carbon dioxide are used to produce glucose by chlorohylls or plant pigment in the presence of sunlight. Glucose is the prime energy releasing compound in cellular respiration. Glucose is also used in synthesizing some diasaccharides and polysaccharides. Glucose is obtained by the hydrolysis of carbohydrates including sucrose, maltose, cellulose and glycogen.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in the Alternative Names
Fructose is also known as fruit sugar, D-fructofuranose, D-fructose, D-arabino-hexulose, Levulose etc.
However Glucose is also known as Blood sugar, Dextrose, D-Glucose, Corn sugar, Grape sugar etc.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in IUPAC Name
Fructose has its IUPAC name as 1,3,4,5,6- Pentahydroxy-2-hexanone.
However, Glucose has its IUPAC name as 2,3,4,5,6- Pentahydroxyhexanal
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in Chemical Structure
Fructose is a 6-carbon Keto sugar and also known as D-Fructopyranose
However, Glucose is a Hexose and also an aldose; and thus is also known as aldohexose.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in Commercial Synthesis
Fructose is commercially produced from sugarcane, sugar beets, corn etc.
However, Glucose is commercially produced through the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in water solubility
Among all the sugars, Fructose is the most water soluble sugar.
However, as compared to Fructose, Glucose is less water soluble.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in Glycemic Index
The Glycemic Index or GI value of Fructose is 19. It has the lowest Glycemic Index of all the natural sugars.
However, Glycemic index or GI of Glucose is higher as compared to Fructose.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in sweetness
Fructose is comparatively sweeter than glucose and it shows a synergy effect when combined with other sweetener.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in Crystallization
It is difficult to crystallize Fructose from an aqueous solution while it is comparatively easier to crystallize glucose from an aqueous solution.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Differences in Hygroscopicity or water absorption
Fructose absorbs moisture from the environment quickly.
However, Glucose slowly absorbs moisture from the environment as compared to fructose.
Fructose Vs Glucose: Other Differences
- Fructose releases moisture slowly to the environment as compared to Glucose.
- Fructose is not a product of photosynthesis. However Glucose is the prime most products of photosynthesis.
- Drinking fructose leads to reduced circulating insulin and leptin levels and an increased ghrelin levels after the meal, as compared to the drinking of glucose.
- It can be concluded that though fructose and glucose are generally simple sugars used as sweetening agents, there are some differences between the two.