Chondrocalcinosis is also known as pseudogout or calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease.
Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease is a joint disorder usually characterized by the deposition of calcium crystals in the soft tissues around the joint resulting in acute joint pain. Chondrocalcinosis is a form of crystal arthropathy such as gout. Crystal arthropathy refers to the precipitation and deposition of crystals of a chemical in a single or many joints resulting in inflammation.
Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease is a condition in which calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals get deposited in the cartilage of single or multiple joints and the tissues surrounding the affected joints. Acute inflammation of the joint is produced as a result of shedding of the crystals. Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease usually involves wrist and knee when compared to gout which usually affects big toe. Chondrocalcinosis also destroys the joints gradually.
Epidemiology of Chondrocalcinosis or Pseudogout or CPPD Disease
Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease may affect individuals from all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Chondrocalcinosis usually affects the individuals over 85 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease exacerbates with growing age. About 50 percent of patients are diagnosed as chondrocalcinosis in United States. Women are more prone to chondrocalcinosis when compared to men and the approximate ratio count between men and women is 1.4:1.
Causes and Risk Factors of Chondrocalcinosis or Pseudogout or CPPD Disease
Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease is caused due to deposition of crystals present in the calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate in the joints. Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease usually may affect many of the joints at a single time resulting in damage and pain. Wrists, pubic symphysis and knees are the joints that most often get affected with chondrocalcinosis. The exact cause of the Chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease is unknown. However, some of the risk factors may include:
- Advancing age.
- Genetic reasons.
- Hyperparathyroidism resulting in high volume of calcium in the blood.
- Decreased magnesium or decreased phosphate.
- Intercurrent illness.
- Arthritis of any form.
- Wilson disease.
Signs and Symptoms of Chondrocalcinosis or Pseudogout or CPPD Disease
Symptoms Can Include:
- Limited range of motion of the joint.
- Joint stiffness.
- Joint pain.
- Swelling of the joint.
- Heat emanating from the joint.
Treatment for Chondrocalcinosis or Pseudogout or CPPD Disease
- Treatment procedures basically depend upon the level of pain and the joint involved. The knee joint is the most commonly affected joint with chondrocalcinosis.
- There is no proper treatment available to treat the condition of chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout or CPPD disease; hence the treatment mainly concentrates on reducing the symptoms.
Medications Prescribed In Order To Control the Disorder May Include:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aleve, naproxen or ibuprofen.
- Medication used for the treatment of gout like colchicine is also very helpful.
- Generally, aspiration of the joint may also help in relieving the pain.
- Corticosteroid injections into the joint may also be helpful.
- Colchicine or prednisone for flares of chondrocalcinosis.
- Surgery is usually performed in severe cases.
- Exercise and physical therapy also helps in improving range of motion of the affected joints.
Investigations for Chondrocalcinosis or Pseudogout or CPPD Disease
Several Tests are Performed to Diagnose Chondrocalcinosis or Pseudogout or CPPD Disease:
- Blood work.
- MRI scans.
- CT scans.
- Nuclear medicine.