What is Malignant Neoplasm Of Prostate?
The prostate gland is a small gland found in males that is located between the urethra and the bladder. It is basically a male reproductive organ which secretes and propels semen ejaculated during sexual intercourse. Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate which is commonly known as prostate cancer is a type of cancer usually found in the elderly population and one of the most common type of cancer found in men.
Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate usually is found in people above the age of 70 although there have been cases of people getting it much before as well. People below the age of 40 rarely get this condition. Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is found more in African-Americans that Native Americans. An individual with a family history of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is more likely to get this condition than others.
People involved in smoking and alcohol abuse are at increased risk for developing Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. Overweight men and people who eat a lot of animal fat are also at an increased risk for Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
People who are exposed to Agent Orange and cadmium are also at risk for developing Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. In some rare cases sexually transmitted diseases have also shown to increase the risk for Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
What Causes Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate?
As is the case with almost all types of cancers, the exact etiology of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is not known but there are various risk factors that have been mentioned above which predispose an individual to developing Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. Genetics also play a role in the development of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
Exposure to certain chemicals and toxins like cadmium and Agent Orange also increase the risk of an individual developing Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. In some cases, certain mutations in the DNA results in abnormal growth of cells in the prostate which take the shape of tumor with the passage of time. This tumor may then spread to other parts of the body causing symptoms.
What are the Symptoms of Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate?
In the initial stages, Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is completely asymptomatic but as the condition advances and the tumor grows bigger it can start to compress the urethra resulting in problems with urination and painful urination. Some of the common symptoms of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate are:
- Problems with emptying the bladder completely
- Dribbling of urine even after urination
- Slow stream of urine
- Delayed urination
- Blood in the semen.
In case if the tumor has spread to other parts of the body then the following symptoms may be experienced by the individual:
- Low back pain or pain in the pelvis to bone metastasis
- Abdominal pain and jaundice due to liver metastasis
- Persistent coughing and chest pain due to lung metastasis
- Unintentional weight loss
- Persistent fatigue and lethargy
How is Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate Diagnosed?
As Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate is a condition in which the tumors grows very slowly thus in most cases this condition is diagnosed during routine checkup like when doing a rectal examination the physician may identify a hard prostate.
It may also be detected when doing blood work and checking the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which will be significantly elevated in cases of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. Advanced imaging studies like MRI and CT scan may be done to further confirm the diagnosis of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
How is Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate Treated?
As Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate are a very slow growing tumors, a diagnosis is not made until the patient is in his 70s. In such conditions, the treatment option is to just observe through frequent blood work checking for levels of PSA.
In cases of younger patients, the treatment approach depends on the extent or stage of the disease and includes radiation therapy which may involve external beam radiation. Another option is implantation of radioactive seeds in the prostate, and proton therapy.
There are also surgical options available for treatment of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. These include radical prostatectomy in which the tumor is removed completely either through an open technique or utilizing robotic approach.
Hormone therapy is also used as a treatment for Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate. This therapy is aimed at decreasing the levels of testosterone which facilitates growth of tumor
Chemotherapy. This is followed by chemotherapy to kill any cancer cells that may have been left behind to complete the treatment for Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.
What is the Prognosis of Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate?
The overall prognosis of a patient with Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate depends on the age, overall health of the patient, and stage of the disease process. In majority of the cases where the disease is diagnosed early the prognosis is extremely good. Since this is a slow growing tumor, even if the diagnosis is made a bit late with adequate treatments the prognosis for the patient overall is fair to good post treatment of Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate.