Orchitis is a disease of the male urogenital organs in which inflammation of the testicles occurs. In most cases, orchitis develops against the background of another infectious disease (mumps, flu, typhoid, paratyphoid, pneumonia, etc.). Often, bilateral testicular damage causes irreversible infertility.(1)
Who Is At Risk For Orchitis?
- A sedentary lifestyle and frequent sitting.
- Too active or, conversely, irregular sex life.
- Decreased body defenses or chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Genital area hypothermia (excessive heating).
- Violation of the outflow of urine (with adenoma, prostatitis, etc.).
- The presence of chronic foci of infection in the body of men (chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, etc.).
- The presence of concomitant pathologies of the genitourinary system (cystitis, pyelonephritis, etc.).(3)
Other preventive rules include:
- Timely treatment of any infectious diseases and inflammatory processes in the body.
- The elimination of any focus of infection (sinusitis, proctitis, bronchitis, prostatitis, etc.).
- Sexual life should be regular, and sex with an occasional partner should be protected.
- In the case of sexual abstinence, it is necessary to prevent the occurrence of stagnant processes in the pelvic area (do yoga, exercise regularly, etc.).
- Lead a healthy and active lifestyle.
- Using safety gear in athletic events (hockey, basketball, etc.).
- Ensure proper nutrition with enough protein, trace elements and vitamins in the diet.
Is There Any Blood Test For Orchitis?
The blood tests are done to identify the degree of the inflammatory process and the severity of the disease. Indirectly, results may indicate a likely causative agent as well.
With a bacterial infection, white blood cell count suggests a higher number of leukocytes (small white blood) and increased ESR. With a viral infection, a higher number of lymphocytes are observed. With a parasitic infection or if the inflammation is caused by an allergy, the eosinophils will be high.
The blood test indicates the number of leucocytes and ESR, which suggests increasing inflammatory processes.
General blood test includes, for example, an increased number of leukocytes (white blood cells) and a higher CRP value (protein value, which increases with inflammation in the blood). The blood test can also provide information about the trigger.(4)
Other Modes Of Diagnosis
To plan a therapeutic tactic and know which treatment of orchitis is most effective in a particular clinical case, a thorough diagnosis of the patient’s condition will be required.
Urine Test: A generic urine examination would be suspicious of pyurias, which suggested the existence of the inflammatory cycle inside the genitourinary tract, as observed by elevated white blood cell counts.
Bacteriological Inspection Of Urine: Urine culture study for the presence of bacteria is an insightful study but it would require at least 1 week having the result. It is related to the complexities of the process.
A Smear From The Urethra For Bacteriological Examination: The results of this analysis help to understand the degree of the inflammatory process, identify and specify the pathogen.
Ultrasound Of The Testicle: An informative, accurate and quick way to research. It helps to identify the spectrum of inflammatory lesions, the localization of the focus, the presence of pathological fluid.(4)
Causes Of Orchitis
Orchitis is a pathological condition characterized by inflammation of the testicle. In some cases, orchitis develops after viral diseases such as influenza, parainfluenza, herpes, measles, and especially often orchitis becomes a formidable complication of mumps. This may be a result of circulatory disorders or impaired outflow of seminal fluid.
Often, several factors become the causes of orchitis, for example, congestion is combined with the addition of pathogenic microflora.
Symptoms Of Orchitis
The onset of the disease is sudden, the temperature rises sharply to 38-39℃. The main symptom is intense pain in the testicle.
Sometimes there are common symptoms of infection: weakness, headache, nausea, dizziness, and chills.
Symptoms of acute orchitis subside by the end of the 2nd week, sometimes without treatment. However, with no treatment, the risk of developing irreversible infertility increases. Also, acute orchitis often becomes chronic.(2)
- Pilatz A, Fijak M, Wagenlehner F, Schuppe H. Orchitis. Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 2019;58(6):697-710.
- Bautista BF, Hernández AP, Rodríguez RO, Lucena LB, Madero JA. Endoscopic treatment of urethrodeferential reflux in children. Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition). 2018;42(2):133-136.
- Waisanen KM, Osumah T, Vaish SS. Testicular Metastasis From Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Recurrent Epididymo-orchitis. Urology. 2017;108:e7-e9.
- Goonewardene SS, Pietrzak P, Albala D. Diagnostic Pathway for Epididymo-Orchitis. Basic Urological Management: Springer; 2019:155-155.
- What is Epididymo-Orchitis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Who is at Risk, Diagnosis
- Orchitis (Bacterial & Viral): Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications, Prevention, Tips to Cope
- Testicular Infection: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis, Diagnosis
- What Is The Best Treatment For Orchitis & Coping Methods For It?
- How To Diagnose Orchitis & What Is The Best Medicine For It?
- How Dangerous Is Orchitis & Is It Contagious?
- What Leads To Orchitis & Can It Be Cured?
- What Is The Prognosis For Orchitis & Lifestyle Changes For It?