Naegleria fowleri or Naegleria is a type of single-celled and heat-loving ameba present in the protozoa phylum referred as Percolozoa. As it is a type of free-living organism, it often lives in soil and fresh water, while consumes bacteria and other similar types of organic matter. The organism mainly undergoes three major stages in its entire life cycle i.e. flagellate, cyst and trophozoite.
When the organism remains in its cyst state, it is able to withstand almost freezing temperature and shows stability towards the environment. Next stage is the flagellate form i.e. an intermediate stage of the organism that moves only and does not intake any nutrient or nor reproduce further. Trophozoite form of Naegleria fowleri is the active reproducing and eating phase. (1)
What Is The Best Treatment For Naegleria Infection?
Best treatment to cure Naegleria Fowleri infection is highly intensive and it is according to the previous successful regimens, other combination of medication drugs and advancement in the management of traumatic type of brain injuries. Common medicines include-
Amphotericin B Drug
Amphotericin B Drug is a type of IV i.e. intravenous drug often used to deal with fungal infections. Other than intravenous treatment, doctors instill amphotericin directly within the spinal cord fluid. Besides this, you will find various other antifungal drugs, which have proved to be successful, which include miconazole and fluconazole, both of which are given via intrathecally and intravenous.
After this, FDA experts have come up with another effective medication, to deal with parasitic infection and later it has become perfect treatment to cure Naegleria Fowleri infection, named miltefosine. Along with antimicrobials, doctors recommend anti-inflammatory and similar types of drugs to reduce the problem of brain swelling.
Besides this, in some of the cases, doctors recommend for ventriculostomy treatment i.e. the insertion of a shunted tube to drain out excessive fluid from the patient’s spinal cord. Along with this, doctors recommend for the usage of artificial respiration techniques, like for instance the hyperventilation and the technique of induced coma to reduce swelling and provide protection to the functions performed by the patient’s brain while the main medicine kills the ameba. (1)
After an individual is exposed to contaminated source of water, symptoms of Naegleria Fowleri develop within only 2 days to up to 12 days usually within only one week i.e. incubation period. Initial symptoms consist of disturbance of smell or taste. However, this remains unnoticed and most of the cases start with:
- Frontal headache
- Vomiting and nausea
- Neck stiffness inability to touch one’s chin towards his chest
With the progress of illness for many hours to a period of few days, most of the cases result in seizures, loss of attention towards the surroundings, hallucinations, coma and finally death. Even the infection spreads so fact that doctors cannot diagnose the problem until doctors perform an autopsy after the death of the patient. (1)
To conclude, we should say that the best treatment to cure Naegleria Fowler infection depends on the individual condition of the patient.
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