Diet for Dyslipidemia: Overview
An abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol, fat phospholipids, triglycerides) in the blood is termed as Dyslipidemia. It must be mentioned that if an individual has dyslipidemia, then he or she has high level of bad cholesterol or LDL and a type of fat, triglycerides. Such conditions can lead to the buildup of dangerous plaque in the arteries, which further increases the risk of potential severe health issues such as heart stroke and heart attack. There are several ways to manage such condition which include the lifestyle changes such as having a better and healthy diet, taking appropriate medications, exercising regularly etc.
Diet is of great importance in managing dyslipidemia. In our following arrays, we will talk about the diet for dyslipidemia where we would talk about the diets one must add in his or her daily life and also talk about other dietary guidelines for dyslipidemia
Diet for Dyslipidemia: Food to Take
Water Soluble Fiber :
Water soluble fiber like grapefruit pectin, oat bran, and psyllium aids in reducing the levels of LDL cholesterol. It must be mentioned that approximately 2/3rd of the dietary fiber(Wheat fiber) is water insoluble and thus patients can choose either a high-fiber diet or a diet in which fresh fruits and oat fiber are prevalent.
Add Stanol and Sterol Ester Margarines to your Diet to Control Dyslipidemia:
Adding stanol, plant sterols, sterol esters, healthy margarines etc can be beneficial for people with dyslipidemia. All plant foods contain sterols, the substances that have been shown to lower cholesterol. Eating a food rich in fiber will also aid in lowering levels of cholesterol as fiber binds to it in the intestine, which moves it out of your body rather than in to the bloodstream.
Add Healthy Fats to your Diet to Manage Dyslipidemia:
There are many fats which are actually good for you and can aid you reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Good sources of healthy fats which can be included in your diet include fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, olive oils, canola oils seeds, nuts, avocados etc.
Add Low Carbohydrate Vegetables and Whole Fruits:
You must take low carbohydrate vegetables like spinach, broccoli, leafy greens, peppers, onions etc in your diet to manage dyslipidemia. Apart from this, it is essential to add whole fruits instead of dried fruits. It is also essential to watch your intake of refined carbohydrates like white bread and sugary foods and beverages.
Add Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Your Diet:
By taking high dose of Omega 3 fatty acids(6-12 g/d); one can have therapeutic reductions in serum triglycerides levels for about 40% to 80%. However the mechanism behind this is still not known. It must be noted that though dietary intake of 9 to 12 oz salmon each day can provide the benefit, it is more easily achieved by taking concentrated fish oil supplements. One more thing to keep a note here is that fish oil supplementation can worsen glucose intolerance and thus can have anticoagulant effects and thus its use should be monitored well in patients with glucose intolerance or in diabetic patients.
Diet for Dyslipidemia: Other Dietary Guidelines for Patients with Dyslipidemia
Reduce Dietary Cholesterol Intake:
It is noted that for patients who consume 200 mg of dietary cholesterol because of excessive meat and dairy intake daily, must consume less than 6 to 7 oz of meat a day, restricting meat portion sizes etc can be a key way for achieving dietary cholesterol goals. Restricting dietary cholesterol intake can help in achieving a 1-3% of reduction in LDL.
Reduce Saturated Fat Intake
Substitute low saturated fat foods like lean meats, low-fat dairy products etc for high- saturated-fat foods like butter, ice cream, cheese, full-fat dairy products, sausage, bacon, fatty meats, donuts etc. It is known that by substituting mono-saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrates for saturated fat in the diet can cause nearly 80% reductions in LDL. Reducing saturated fat intake aids in 5-10% of reduction in LDL.
Trim Excess of Calories
Obesity results in an increased production of very low density lipoproteins or VLDL by the liver. Reducing the body weight reduces the production rate of these LDL precursors and this in turn reduces LDL. As most patients find it hard to lose weight, and as it is only the rare person who can increase his physical activity sufficiently for losing weight; it is essential for the patients with dyslipidemia and obesity to follow a consistent dietary plan that reduces the intake of excess calorie. You need to subtract 500 calories from the number of calories required to maintain weight; this gives a good formula that can produce a 1-2lb/wk of weight loss. However, for patients who do not want to count calories, consuming only half of the restaurant portion serves, eliminating chips, bread and extras that come with a meal, taking only 1 cookie instead of 3, consuming calorie-free beverages instead if soda or juices, eliminating snack whenever possible; can be a great help. By trimming excess of calories from the diet, one can reduce the LDL cholesterol levels by 5% – 20%
Trim Excess Alcohol Intake:
Alcohol is the macronutrient with the strongest linear association to serum triglycerides. It is essential that you reduce the alcohol intake if you are a patient with elevated serum triglycerides. Excessive alcohol in such cases can further exacerbate the dyslipidemia. By reducing the intake of hard liquor to not more than 1.5 oz/d, intake of beer to one 12-oz beer, and intake of wine to 5 oz or 2/3 cup; you can have a 50% reduction in triglycerides.
It is essential for you to avoid smoking if you are suffering from dyslipidemia. This is because smoking is lined low HDL cholesterol levels.
There must be several measures that require to be taken so as to achieve lipid levels that fall within normal or acceptable ranges in case of patient with dyslipidemia. Though there are various treatments available in reducing the risk factors in dyslipidemia; it is essential that by following the right diet and exercise one can help self in improving his or her health.