Multiple endocrine neoplasias are the inherited disease of overactive endocrine glands that may run in families. It is caused by the transfer of mutated or defective genes from parents to children. The defective gene causes overproduction of hormones by one or more endocrine glands in the affected person at the same time. It may involve endocrine glands like a parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal gland. This disease can be diagnosed through a blood test; genetic testing, CT scan, and MRI scan. It cannot be cured and its symptoms can be managed.
What Are The Symptoms Of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia?
Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome or MEN refers to a group of inherited disorders that leads to the development of tumors in more than one tumor in endocrine glands at a time. It can involve major endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pancreas. The tumors affect the levels of the hormones secreted by these glands. The tumors developed can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are slow-growing tumors that are located in a single part of the body and do not spread to other parts. It is also not a life-threatening condition. Malignant tumors are rapidly growing tumors that spread to other parts. If malignant tumors are not managed properly, it can be fatal.
The symptoms of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes depend on the types of MEN. It also depends on the affected endocrine system. This affects the secretion of hormones in the body that may cause different symptoms. (1)
The types of multiple endocrine neoplasias are-
- MEN 1 (Wermer’s syndrome)
- MEN 2A (Sipple syndrome)
- MEN 2B
It usually affects pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas. It can develop at any age and may develop in men and women both. It usually has a family history of the condition. (3)
- Black stool
- Burning, or hunger discomfort in the abdomen in the upper side
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Irregular menses
- Pain in the muscle
- Sensitivity to cold temperatures
- Kidney stones
- Weight loss
- Visual impairments
It involves adrenal gland, thyroid gland, and parathyroid gland. Its symptoms develop due to the formation of tumors. It develops at the age of 30 years. (2)
- Enlarged tumors in the neck
- Increased blood pressure
- Rapid heart rate
- Excess sweating
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urging to urination
- Swollen tumors in the lips and tongue
- Curvature of spine
- Thick lips and eyelids
- Long extremities
- Enlarged large intestine
It affects specifically adrenal gland and thyroid gland. Its symptoms involve-
- Abnormal bony structure in the skeleton
- Digestive problems
- Swelling of nerve fibers in the mouth and digestive system
- Abnormal height
- Skinny structure
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Causes
Multiple endocrine neoplasias are the inherited disease that appears due to mutations of the genes transferred from the parents to the children. The genes are defective that are meant to carry information for a protein named menin. This results in the appearance of tumors in various endocrine glands in the same person. MEN II is caused by a defective gene known as RET. This defect can appear in the affected individual and can cause the development of many tumors not always at the same time.
This disorder can develop at any age and affects both males and females equally. This disease is seen in families and passed from generation to generation. Those who have a family history of MEN are at more risk of developing this disease.
Multiple endocrine neoplasias are the genetic condition that leads to the formation of tumors in the endocrine glands in the same person usually at the same time. Its symptoms representation is according to its types. Its symptoms involve anxiety, bony abnormalities, weakness, mental changes, visual impairments, and many others discussed above.