What is Anisocoria?
Anisocoria refers to a condition in which there is irregularity in the size of the pupils of the eyes(1, 2, 4). Anisicoria is a benign condition and there are several causes for it(2, 4). In fact, some studies have revealed that most people have some irregularity in the size of their pupils when they are exposed to dim light, but the difference is not that significant to become a cause of concern(3). However, significant difference in the size of the pupils indicates an underlying medical condition, which will require treatment.
In some cases, an individual is born with Anisocoria even though it is quite rare. People with Anisocoria also tend to have blurred or double vision(5, 6). There may also be temporary loss of vision in some cases. Headaches are also observed in people with Anisocoria(6). Fever, neck stiffness, and nausea or vomiting can also be seen depending on what is causing the Anisocoria in an individual.
What Causes Anisocoria?
Horner Syndrome is the primary cause of Anisocoria although certain medications given for eye infections may also cause it(1). Damage to the brain and nerves also tends to cause Anisocoria(1). An injury to the eye is also one of the common causes for Anisocoria(1). This article gives a brief overview of whether Anisocoria can be cured.
Can Anisocoria be Cured?
If an individual has not been born with Anisocoria, then this type of Anisocoria can definitely be cured. The treatment for Anisocoria depends on the underlying cause.
Anti-inflammatory Medications for Curing Anisocoria: If inflammation of the iris is the cause of Anisocoria, then medications to treat the infection and calm down the medications usually gets rid of Anisocoria.
Antibiotics or Antivirals to Treat Anisocoria: If bacterial or viral infections are diagnosed as a cause for Anisocoria, then antibiotics or antivirals will be recommended as a cure for Anisocoria.
Curing Anisocoria with Radiation & Chemotherapy: Anisocoria caused due to a brain tumor can be treated by removing the tumor followed by radiation and chemotherapy.
Surgery to Cure Anisocoria: Anisocoria caused due to an eye injury may require both conservative, as well as surgical treatment to treat the injury and get rid of Anisocoria.
No Treatment Required: In some cases, the irregularity in the pupil size is so minute that it is not even visible to the naked eye. In such cases, the physician may deem the unequal size of the pupil as a normal variant and not recommend any treatment. In these instances, Anisocoria goes away on its own without any treatments.
Sometimes, No Cure for Anisocoria: However, if permanent damage is caused to the brain and the nervous system, which results in Anisocoria, then it becomes extremely tough to bring the affected pupil back to its normal size. In such cases, Anisocoria remains more or less permanent.
To summarize, Anisocoria is a treatable condition and its treatment depends on the underlying cause of it. Very mild cases of Anisocoria do not require any treatment and are considered as temporary. However, Anisocoria caused due to serious medical conditions like nerve damage or a tumor requires aggressive treatment to treat these conditions and get rid of Anisocoria.
Thus it is recommended that if an individual has significant degree of Anisocoria, then he or she should get thoroughly evaluated to rule out any serious medical condition. If a medical condition is diagnosed, then the individual should get treated immediately to prevent complications and get rid of Anisocoria.