Cerebral or brain aneurysm involves weak and bulging area in the artery wall, which is responsible for the supply of blood into brain. In a majority of cases, brain aneurysm does not include any symptom and goes on in an unnoticed condition.
In rare cases, ruptures take place resulting in the release of blood into brain skull and causing the problem of stroke. Ruptures of brain aneurysm results in SAH i.e. subarachnoid hemorrhage. Depending on SAH severity, patients may suffer from severe damage or even die. Brain aneurysms usually take place in the blood vessels’ network present at the base of human brain referred as Willis circle.
What are the Causes of Brain Aneurysm?
An individual may inherit the tendency to suffer from aneurysms or develop the problem because of atherosclerosis i.e. hardening of arteries and aging problems. Doctors may control a few risk factors leading to cerebral aneurysm but cannot be able to control others.
Particularly, the following risk factors will increase the likelihood of the problem or may increase the risk of rupturing it.
Family History: Individuals with a family history of cerebral or brain aneurysms likely develop the problem than others, who do not.
Previous Aneurysm: People suffered from aneurysm problem in the past are likely to suffer from another attack.
Gender: If we compare previous medical history associated with the problem of aneurysm, we will find women are relatively more tend to develop the problem or to suffer from SAH i.e. subarachnoid hemorrhage.
High Blood Pressure: Risk related to SAH problem becomes relatively high in patients dealing with or dealt with high blood pressure.
How to Identify Brain Aneurysm?
If your doctor suspects the problem of brain or cerebral aneurysm, he may recommend you to undergo with following tests-
CT i.e. Computed Tomography Scan. This test helps in the identification of bleeding (if any) in your brain. Sometimes, pathologists use a lumbar puncture in case they suspect the presence of a ruptured type of aneurysm in combination with SAH problem.
MRA i.e. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. This test involves the usage of a magnetic field and radio wave energy pulses for providing detailed pictures of inner blood vessels of patients. MRA even involves the usage of dye to get clear display of blood vessels in the screen.
Can You Get a Brain Aneurysm from Stress?
Research studies conducted in the medical sector have found that oxidative stress is responsible for the contribution of cerebro vascular disease progression in human beings. Reasons are:
Augments the Problem of Inflammation: Oxidative stress increases and augments inflammation i.e. it constitutes a prime contributor towards both the development and rupturing of brain aneurysm problem.
May Induce Important Procedures: Another study has found out that oxidative stress is responsible to induce various important procedures resulting in the formation of cerebral aneurysm problem in individuals. These will include direct endothelial injuries and phenotypic switching of smooth muscular cells to any inflammatory phenotype as well as ultimately apoptosis.
Results in Inflammatory Cells Invasion and Recruitment: Oxidative stress results in both invasion and recruitment of inflammatory cells via up-regulation of various chemotactic cytokines and different forms of adhesion molecules.
Free Radicals and Brain Aneurysm Development Relationships
Free radicals are responsible to activate matrix metalloproteinases, which further result in remodeling of vessel walls and their breakdowns. Free radicals even mediate lipid per-oxidation procedure to cause atherosclerosis and contribute towards hypertensive pathology and hemodynamic stress, all of which constitute integral elements associated with the development of brain/cerebral aneurysms.
Previous research studies have revealed that therapies aimed at the analysis of oxidative stress may give a beneficial treatment in the near future for brain aneurysms. However, further studies have indicated and defined the role of various free radicals in the formation and rupture of brain aneurysm. In simple words, instead of easing the condition, oxidative stress has led to further complications, including rupture in brain aneurysm patients.
- Brinjikji W, Zhu YQ, Lanzino G, Cloft HJ, Murad MH, Wang Z. Risk Factors for Growth of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2016; 37(4): 615-620. https://www.ajnr.org/content/37/4/615
- Chalouhi N, Ali MS, Jabbour PM, et al. Biology of intracranial aneurysms: role of inflammation. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 2012; 32(9): 1659-1676. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1038/jcbfm.2012.84
- Hasan D, Hashimoto N, Kung D, Macdonald RL, Winn HR, Heistad D. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in wall of ruptured human cerebral aneurysms: preliminary results. Stroke. 2012; 43(7): 1964-1967. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22569938/
- Chalouhi N, Ali MS, Starke RM, et al. Cigarette smoke and inflammation: role in cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture. Medical Principles and Practice. 2013; 22(1): 22-30. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/345821
- Hasan D, Hashimoto T, Kung D, et al. Gene expression profiling of experimentally induced cerebral aneurysms in rats: involvement of endothelial cell apoptosis and stress response signaling. Stroke. 2014; 45(5): 128-135. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003408
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