Mitral valve prolapse is a condition marked by flabbiness and looseness of the mitral valve, due to this condition mitral do not close tightly leading to leakage of the blood from left ventricle to the left atrium. It is usually an inherited condition. It usually does not have any symptom. But it may represent symptoms like chest pain, discomfort in the chest and many more. The prognosis of this condition is excellent with medicines and lifestyle changes.
Prognosis Of Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse has excellent prognosis in majority of patients. It is similar in every age and sex. Most of the patients with mitral valve prolapse lead a normal and symptom less life when they follow healthy lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle includes regular exercises, healthy food habits, and normal sleep pattern. Only in a few cases, the mitral valve prolapsed may complicate into infective endocarditis, mitral regurgitation and sudden death from cardiac failure. In research study, it is found in the postmortem of patients of cardiac failure that only 10% of patients die due to Mitral valve prolapse.
Mitral valve is situated in between left atrium and left ventricle. It opens to allow the flow of blood from left atrium to left ventricle and then close to regulate backflow of blood. Mitral valve prolapse is a condition in which mitral valve is too loose and too flabby. In this condition, the mitral valve does not close firmly. It may close with slight leakage of some blood with a faint sound which is known as a heart murmur.
Mitral valve prolapse affects 2 to 4% population. It is inherited in families generation to generation.
Mitral Valve Prolapse Symptoms
Mitral valve prolapse does not represent any symptom in most cases. It is detected accidentally in a heart scan (electrocardiogram) done for some other reason.
The symptoms that appear sometimes in the condition of mitral valve prolapse are-
- Dizziness or fainting
- Breathing problem
- Pain in the chest
- Lack of stamina
- Heart palpitations
Mitral Valve Prolapse Complications
Mitral valve prolapse may have following complications-
Mitral Regurgitation- mitral valve prolapse that remains untreated due to late diagnosis may result in backflow of blood from left atrium to left ventricle. This condition is called mitral regurgitation. It may lead to enlargement of the cardiac chambers. The heart muscles also get weakened over time. It may lead to heart failure. However, it is very rare and develops only in 5 % of patients with mitral valve prolapse.
Endocarditis – in rare cases, a leaky heart may develop an infection, namely Endocarditis. Doctors give antibiotics to avoid such heart infections especially before any procedure that can cause an infection.
Mitral Valve Prolapse Causes
Mitral valve prolapse can be triggered by the affections of the tissues attaching to the mitral valve from heart muscles. Most of the cases of mitral valve prolapse occur due to genetic reasons. It is more commonly seen in patients with connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome. Infants are born with mitral valve prolapse and this condition may run in families.
In some rare cases, damages caused to heart vessels due to a heart attack can lead to the prolapse of the mitral valve.
Mitral Valve Prolapse Treatment
Treatment of mitral valve prolapse depends on the age of the patient and the severity of the condition. It is treated by following ways-
- Medicines like beta blockers, diuretics, antiarrhythmic medicines, aspirin, and other blood thinners can help in this condition.
- Surgery is required in the cases of mitral valve disease with mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve repair and replacement are two types of surgery for mitral valve prolapse.
Mitral valve prolapse is a disease of mitral valves characterized by the looseness of the valve. This leads to slight leakage of blood from left ventricle into the left atrium. The prognosis of the mitral valve is very good. It improves well with treatment and lifestyle modification. In a few cases, the condition may complicate into mitral regurgitation, mitral endocarditis, and sudden death.
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