Neuromas may take place after any type of nerve injury and nerve injuries often take place due to blunt or sharp trauma, along with traction injury. In case of injuries, where the nerve suffers partial injury, neuroma forms in continuation. Neuromas thus results from any abnormal regeneration of various sprouting axons. Nerve swelling forms at the injured nerve’s proximal end and it consists of scar tissues and random proliferating proximal because of the deposition of fibroblasts. Axon fascicles escaping out from any damaged peripeurium is the prime reason behind the formation of Neuromas.
What Are The Types Of Neuromas?
Until now, doctors have identified the following major types of Neuromas in humans:
Ganglio Neuroma. Ganglio Neuroma is a benign and rare type of tumor caused due to autonomic nerve fibers, which arise from the neural crest sympathogia. These are undifferentiated types of cells belonging to sympathetic nervous system. However, ganglio neuromas are completely different from neuronal tumors, which do not posses any immature elements. Ganglio Neuromas mainly take place in the abdominal areas. However, such tumors may grow at any place, where sympathetic nerve tissue remains present in your body. Accordingly, other locations of the Ganglio Neuromas include para-spinal area, adrenal glands, posterior medastinum, neck and head.
Acoustic Neuroma. Acoustic neuroma is another rare type of noncancerous tumor and it grows slowly due to the overproduction of Schwann cells. Doctors often refer it as a vestibular Schwannoma and accordingly, the tumor thus formed presses on balance and hearing nerves present in the internal area of one’s ear. Schwann cells often wrap around to give support to the nerve fibers. On the other side, a large tumor presses on one’s facial nerve or different brain structures. Major symptoms associated with this type of Neuroma are hearing loss on a particular side i.e. inability to hear any high frequency sound, ringing in one’s ear i.e. on the tumor’s side, balance problems and similar others. In addition, a patient suffers from facial numbness, mental confusion and headache.
Pacinian Neuroma. Pacinian Neuroma is a localized type of hyperplasia of various pacinian corpulscles. This often follows trauma and highlights as a localized form of painful mass on digital nerves. Microscopically it highlights increase in both number and size of pacinian corpulscles. On the other side, adjacent nerves reveal fibrosis and degenerative variations.
Other Forms of Neuroma
Traumatic Neuroma. Traumatic neuroma refers to non-neoplastic lesion, which takes place because of surgery or injury. Nerves usually repair on own via proximal to distal proliferation of various Schwann cells. However, when the repair suffers interruption or fails to take place in the right order, proximal aspect associated with the respective nerve causes disorganized proliferation and thereby, a Neuroma. Traumatic Neuromas take place after auto amputation or limb amputation and such lesions are of painful.
Morton’s Neuroma. Morton’s neuroma refers to noncancerous or benign type of swelling across the foot nerve responsible to carry sensation from toes. Once the nerve starts swelling, the surrounding ligaments and bones apply pressure resulting in inflammation and irritation. Because of this procedure, you experience numbness, burning pain, tingling and various other abnormal sensations in your toes.
- Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Neuromas https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17701-neuromas
- Mayo Clinic. (2021). Acoustic Neuroma https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acoustic-neuroma/symptoms-causes/syc-20356127
- OrthoInfo. (2021). Morton’s Neuroma https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/mortons-neuroma
- World Neurosurgery. (2019). Non-vestibular Schwannomas of the Head and Neck https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919101/