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The Power of Berberine : Benefits, Safety, and Clinical Evidence

  1. About Berberine

    Definition of Berberine:

    Goldenseal, Oregon grape, and Chinese goldthread are just a few of the plants that contain the alkaloid Berberine. Traditional medicine has relied on its bright yellow hue and antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant capabilities for generations. Berberine has been the subject of numerous studies, and research (Han et al., 2021), has shown that it may have potential therapeutic uses for a variety of conditions, including type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and inflammation.

    Natural Sources of Berberine:

    Berberine can be present in various plant species, including Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Berberis aristata (tree turmeric), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), and Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread). Berberine is also present in various traditional medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine, such as Phellodendron amurense and Cortex Phellodendri (Vuddanda et al., 2010).

    Historical Uses Of Berberine In Traditional Medicine

    Traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and Native American medicine have all employed Berberine for ages.

    According to a study (Cicero & Baggioni, 2016), Traditional medicine has employed Berberine to treat a wide range of conditions, such as digestive issues, lung infections, diarrhea, and dysentery. Berberine has been used to treat diabetes, excessive cholesterol, and hypertension in Chinese medicine. As a result of Berberine’s demonstrated hypoglycemic effects, blood sugar levels may be lowered. It has also been demonstrated to have lipid-lowering properties, indicating that it has the ability to decrease cholesterol. Moreover, berberine has been used to treat gastroenteritis brought on by bacteria.

    Another study published in Toxins (Och et al., 2020), found that, the biological effects of Berberine are diverse, and they include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial characteristics. In Ayurveda medicine, Berberine has been used to alleviate inflammation and bacterial infections. By lowering inflammatory cytokine levels, Berberine has been proven to have anti-inflammatory benefits. Furthermore demonstrated to possess antioxidant effects, Berberine helps defend against oxidative damage.

    In Native American medicine, Berberine has been used as a general tonic to support overall health and wellbeing. A study published in Pharmacognosy Magazine (Wintola & Afolayan, 2011), found that Berberine has antioxidant properties, which can help to protect against oxidative stress. An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants causes oxidative stress, which affects the body. Berberine has been shown to have a high level of antioxidant activity, which can help to protect against oxidative stress.

    Berberine has a lengthy history of use in traditional medicine, to sum up. It has been used to treat a number of illnesses, such as digestive issues, respiratory infections, diarrhea, and dysentery. Furthermore, diabetes, excessive cholesterol, and hypertension have all been treated using Berberine. It is a promising natural therapy for a number of medical disorders due to its wide range of biological activities, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial characteristics. 

  2. Biological Effects of Berberine

    Berberine’s Effects on Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity

    Berberine has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improving glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

    Berberine’s effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity have been studied extensively, both in animals and humans. Berberine significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin resistance in persons with type 2 diabetes, according to a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials including 1068 participants (Dong et al., 2012).

    The enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which controls glucose and lipid metabolism, is turned on by Berberine, supporting its function in metabolic regulation. (Lee et al., 2006). Activating AMPK can increase glucose uptake in muscle cells and improve insulin sensitivity (Hawley et al., 2010).

    Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties, in addition to its effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, have been demonstrated for Berberine (Imenshahidi & Hosseinzadeh, 2019). However, more research is needed to verify Berberine’s long-term safety and effectiveness in humans.

    Berberine’s Effects on Lipid Metabolism and Blood Lipid Levels

    In recent years, researchers have become interested in the potential of Berberine to improve lipid metabolism and lower blood lipid levels.

    According to research, Berberine has been found to have positive impacts on lipid metabolism. One particular study discovered that Berberine could enhance the function of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is an enzyme that is essential in controlling lipid metabolism in the liver and other parts of the body (Lee et al., 2006). As a result of the enhanced AMPK activity induced by Berberine, there could be an increase in the process of fat oxidation and a reduction in the production of lipids. This effect can potentially lead to an improvement in lipid metabolism and a decrease in the buildup of fat in the liver.

    Aside from its impact on AMPK, Berberine has demonstrated its ability to lower the expression of specific genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. These genes include fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) (Zhang et al., 2008). This can contribute to the reduction of lipid production in the liver, leading to potential enhancements in lipid metabolism.

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of Berberine on blood lipid levels. An analysis that combined data from 11 randomized controlled trials discovered that the use of Berberine resulted in notable decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels, while also leading to an elevation in HDL cholesterol levels (Ju et al., 2018). Additional research has indicated that Berberine can enhance lipid metabolism and decrease blood lipid levels among individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (Yan et al., 2015) (Y. Wang et al., 2017).

    The results of these studies highlight the promising potential of Berberine as a natural means to enhance lipid metabolism and lower blood lipid levels. Nevertheless, additional research is necessary to fully comprehend the mechanisms behind Berberine’s actions and to establish the most effective dosages and treatment schedules suitable for various patient groups.

    Berberine’s Effects on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    The pharmacological properties of Berberine are diverse, with documented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. To understand the means by which Berberine generates these effects, a number of investigations have been conducted.

    The process of inflammation is multifaceted, involving the stimulation of immune cells and the discharge of diverse inflammatory agents. Research indicates that Berberine can curb the activation of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, MAPK, and NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in diminished output of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (Jeong et al., 2009) (Zhang et al., 2011).

    Additionally, Berberine has been demonstrated to have a safeguarding impact on oxidative stress, which occurs due to the disproportionality between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the body’s inherent antioxidant defenses. Research suggests that Berberine can heighten the effectiveness of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, while concurrently curbing the generation of ROS in diverse cellular types (Y. Z. Wu et al., 2019) (Zhang et al., 2014).

    A randomized controlled trial that involved patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes indicated that taking Berberine supplements resulted in decreased inflammation markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and improved antioxidant status, which was evident by a decline in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (Geng et al., 2016).

    A study Involving rats demonstrated that administering Berberine reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and augmented the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver tissue (Yang et al., 2019).

    Based on the results of these studies, it can be inferred that Berberine can potentially serve as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and management of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related ailments, owing to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics.

    Berberine’s Potential For Promoting Weight Loss

    Berberine has recently gained attention in Western medicine for its potential to improve various aspects of metabolic health, including blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and body weight.

    Studies suggest that Berberine may aid weight loss through multiple mechanisms. One such mechanism involves the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which plays a crucial role in regulating energy metabolism and promoting fat burning. A study conducted about AMPK (Jin et al., 2017), found that Berberine treatment increased the activation of AMPK, which led to increased fat burning and weight loss in obese mice.

    Berberine may also affect gut microbiota, which has been linked to weight regulation. A study conducted by Zhang (Zhang et al., 2012), found that Berberine treatment altered the composition of gut microbiota in obese mice, resulting in improved glucose tolerance, decreased body weight, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Furthermore, Berberine may help to reduce inflammation, which is often associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. A study conducted by (Cao et al., 2021), found that Berberine treatment reduced inflammation markers and improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese individuals.

    Furthermore, Berberine is believed to enhance insulin sensitivity, a key factor in maintaining healthy blood glucose levels and facilitating weight loss. A study conducted (Yang et al., 2012), found that Berberine treatment can enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Overall, the evidence suggests that Berberine may have potential for promoting weight loss by multiple mechanisms, including activation of AMPK, modulation of gut microbiota, reduction of inflammation, and improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  3. Clinical Evidence of Berberine’s Effectiveness

    Review of Recent Clinical Trials and Studies: Discussion of the Effectiveness of Berberine in Improving Various Health Conditions

    Berberine has been studied in recent clinical trials and research for its potential to improve various health conditions such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.

    Type 2 Diabetes:

    According to a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials involving 1068 participants, Berberine was found to have a significant effect on reducing fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in comparison to placebo or other hypoglycemic agents. The study concluded that Berberine could be an effective and safe option for managing type 2 diabetes (Guo et al., 2021). A randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted on 116 participants found that the combination of Berberine with lifestyle modifications was more effective than lifestyle modifications alone in improving glycemic control and lipid metabolism (Dong et al., 2012).


    A review of 11 randomized controlled trials with 874 participants found that Berberine resulted in a significant decrease in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, compared to placebo or other lipid-lowering agents. The study concluded that Berberine could be an effective and safe option for managing hyperlipidemia (Guo et al., 2021).


    A review and meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials involving 1065 participants demonstrated that Berberine was effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure when compared to placebo or other antihypertensive medications. The study concluded that Berberine could be an effective and safe option for managing hypertension (Lan et al., 2015).

    Metabolic Syndrome:

    One randomized controlled trial with 97 participants revealed that Berberine significantly enhanced lipid metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance in patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Meanwhile, another randomized controlled trial with 48 participants showed that Berberine improved insulin resistance and liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) (Och et al., 2022).

    In addition to the above health conditions, Berberine has also shown potential in improving cognitive function and reducing inflammation (Li Zhao, 2017). More research is required to validate these results.

    The studies discussed above indicate that Berberine may be a potential option for the management of health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the studies suggest that Berberine has good safety and tolerability profile, but it is noteworthy that some studies have reported gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea, constipation, and nausea. Nevertheless, further research is necessary to validate these findings and establish the long-term safety and efficacy of Berberine as a therapeutic agent (Lin et al., 2020). 

  4. Safety and Side Effects of Berberine

    Possible Side Effects of Berberine

    Although Berberine is generally regarded as safe, it is essential to be aware of potential side effects, which may include:

    • Gastrointestinal Distress: Berberine is generally considered safe, but it can cause gastrointestinal discomfort in some individuals. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation are some of the reported side effects. A study on rats with hypertriglyceridemia showed that Berberine can alter the gut microbiota and increase the levels of short-chain fatty acids, which may cause gastrointestinal distress in some people (Li et al., 2014).
    • Interaction with Medications: Berberine has been found to interact with several medications, including antibiotics, antihistamines, and blood pressure medications. It can increase the effects of these medications or reduce their effectiveness, which can be harmful to your health. It is important to talk to your doctor before taking Berberine if you are currently taking any medications (Han et al., 2021).
    • Lowered Blood Pressure: Berberine may cause a decrease in blood pressure. A study conducted on rats found that when Berberine was combined with simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, it enhanced the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure (Shi-Jun Yue, 2019). While using Berberine, it is crucial to keep track of your blood pressure, particularly if you are taking any medication for hypertension.
    • Neurological Effects: Studies have indicated that Berberine may have therapeutic potential for treating central nervous system disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. However, high doses of Berberine have been found to cause cognitive impairment and neuronal damage in rats (L. Wu et al., 2019). Additional studies are required to establish the appropriate and safe dosages of Berberine that can be used for the treatment of neurological conditions.
    • Hypoglycemia: Berberine has the potential to lower blood sugar levels, which can cause hypoglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes, particularly if they are taking other medications to control their blood sugar. It is crucial to monitor blood sugar levels frequently while taking Berberine (Kong et al., 2008).

    In conclusion, while Berberine has many potential health benefits, it is important to be aware of the possible side effects. If you are considering taking Berberine, it is important to talk to your doctor to determine if it is right for you and to monitor your health closely while taking it.

    Discussion of interactions With Other Medications And Health Conditions

    In recent years, Berberine has gained attention for its potential benefits in managing various health (Wang et al., 2018)conditions. However, as with any supplement or medication, it is important to understand how Berberine may interact with other medications and health conditions.

    Interactions with Medications:

    Berberine has been shown to interact with several medications, including antibiotics, blood thinners, and medications for diabetes and high blood pressure.

    • Antibiotics: Berberine has been shown to enhance the effects of certain antibiotics, including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. This may be due to Berberine’s ability to increase the permeability of bacterial cell membranes, allowing antibiotics to more easily penetrate and kill the bacteria (Sadeghnia et al., 2017).
    • Blood thinners: Berberine may increase the effects of blood thinners, such as warfarin and aspirin, leading to an increased risk of bleeding. Patients taking these medications should consult with their healthcare provider before taking Berberine (Pérez-Rubio et al., 2013) (X. Wang et al., 2017).
    • Medications for diabetes: Berberine has demonstrated potential in improving glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, making it a promising option for treating diabetes. However, caution should be taken when using Berberine with other diabetes medications like metformin, as it may increase the risk of hypoglycemia(low blood sugar) (Wang et al., 2018).
    • Medications for high blood pressure: There is a possibility that Berberine may interact with medications that are commonly used to manage hypertension, such as calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. Berberine has been shown to have a hypotensive effect, which may exacerbate the effects of these medications (Suadoni & Atherton, 2021).

    Interactions With Health Conditions:

    Berberine has been shown to have potential benefits for several health conditions, but it may also interact with certain conditions.

    • Liver disease: Berberine has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects, meaning it may protect the liver from damage (Liu et al., 2013). However, patients with liver disease should consult with their healthcare provider before taking Berberine, as it may interact with certain medications used to treat liver disease.
    • Pregnancy: There is limited research on the safety of Berberine during pregnancy. One study in rats found that high doses of Berberine during pregnancy led to fetal abnormalities, but more research is needed to determine the safety of Berberine during human pregnancy (Jahnke et al., 2006).

    Importance of Consulting a Healthcare Provider Before Taking Berberine

    Recently, Berberine has gained increasing popularity in Western countries due to its potential health benefits. However, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare provider before taking Berberine. This article will delve into the significance of seeking medical advice before using Berberine.

    Potential Side Effects

    Although Berberine is considered safe for most people, it can cause side effects, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods. Diarrhea, constipation, stomach cramps, and nausea are among the most frequently reported side effects of Berberine (Alolga et al., 2016) Berberine can potentially interact with some medications, such as anticoagulants and antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, it is essential to consult a healthcare provider to evaluate any potential risks and interactions.

    Medical Conditions

    Berberine may have potential benefits for several medical conditions, but it is important to determine whether it is appropriate for individual health conditions. For example, Berberine has the potential to lower blood sugar levels, which could be advantageous for individuals with diabetes. However, it can also interact with diabetes medications, and people with low blood sugar or hypoglycemia should not take Berberine. Similarly, Berberine may interact with medications used to treat mental health conditions or liver diseases. Consulting a healthcare provider can help identify any potential risks.

    Dosage and Safety

    Berberine supplements are available over the counter, and the dosage can vary significantly between products. The recommended dose is typically 500 mg to 1500 mg per day, divided into two or three doses. However, the optimal dose may vary depending on individual factors such as age, weight, and medical history. Consulting a healthcare provider can help determine the correct dose and ensure it is safe for individual use.

    Quality Control

    The quality of Berberine supplements can vary significantly between products, and some may contain harmful contaminants or inadequate amounts of active ingredients. Therefore, it is essential to choose a reputable brand and consult a healthcare provider to ensure the product is safe and effective.

    In conclusion, Berberine has potential health benefits, but It is crucial to seek advice from a healthcare professional before considering it’s use. A healthcare provider can evaluate individual risks, interactions, and optimal dosage, and ensure that the product is safe and effective. It is crucial to remember that Berberine supplements are not a substitute for medical treatment, and individuals should always follow the advice of their healthcare provider.

  5. Applications of Berberine in Health and Wellness

    Discussion of the potential of Berberine as a natural remedy for various health conditions

    The potential of Berberine to lower blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes is one of the most extensively studied areas. In a study (Zhang et al., 2008), researchers found that Berberine was found to be equally effective as metformin, a drug commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, in reducing blood sugar levels in individuals with the condition. Berberine appears to work by increasing insulin sensitivity and promoting the uptake of glucose into cells. Berberine’s ability to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that regulates metabolism, may be responsible for its ability to lower blood sugar levels.

    Berberine has also been shown to have potential as a natural remedy for cardiovascular disease. In a 2019 study (Cao & Su, 2019), researchers found that Berberine supplementation significantly reduced the levels of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in people with metabolic syndrome while increasing the levels of HDL cholesterol. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of risk factors that can lead to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

    Apart from its potential for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, Berberine has been researched for its potential as a natural remedy for other health conditions. For instance, a study was conducted on mood disorders (Fan et al., 2019), found that Berberine may have potential as a natural remedy for depression, due to its ability to modulate the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. Berberine has also been shown to have antimicrobial properties, and may be effective against a variety of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.

    Overview of different forms of Berberine Supplementation

    Berberine has become a popular dietary supplement because of its potential health benefits. Different forms of Berberine supplementation are:

    Berberine Capsules

    Berberine capsules are the most common form of Berberine supplementation. These capsules typically contain 500 mg of Berberine, and the recommended dosage is two capsules per day. Berberine capsules are convenient to use and are widely available online and in health food stores. However, Taking Berberine capsules may lead to gastrointestinal side effects, including but not limited to diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.

    Berberine Powder

    Berberine powder is another form of Berberine supplementation. This form of Berberine is usually sold in bulk and can be mixed with water or juice. Berberine powder may be more convenient for people who have difficulty swallowing capsules. However, Berberine powder has a bitter taste and may cause stomach upset if taken on an empty stomach.

    Berberine Tincture

    Berberine tincture is an alcohol-based liquid extract of Berberine. This form of Berberine supplementation is typically used in herbal medicine and may not be as widely available as capsules or powder. Berberine tincture may be more effective than capsules or powder as the alcohol in the tincture may increase the absorption of Berberine. However, Berberine tincture may not be suitable for people who are sensitive to alcohol.

    Berberine Combined With Other Supplements

    Berberine is often combined with other supplements, such as milk thistle or alpha-lipoic acid, to enhance its health benefits. These combination supplements may be more effective than Berberine alone, but more research is needed to determine their effectiveness. Additionally, combination supplements may be more expensive than Berberine alone.

  6. Berberine’s Potential For Promoting Overall Health And Wellness

    One of the primary benefits of Berberine is its ability to help regulate blood sugar levels. A study on randomized control trials (Li Wang, 2021), found that in individuals with type 2 diabetes, Berberine has been shown to lower blood glucose levels to a degree similar to that of metformin, a commonly prescribed medication for diabetes. Another study published in Experimental and Therapeutic medicine (Cao & Su, 2019), found that Berberine was effective in reducing insulin resistance and improving insulin sensitivity in overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Berberine may also have a positive impact on cardiovascular health. A study published in 2004 (Kong et al., 2004), found that in individuals with high cholesterol, Berberine was found to decrease total cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Another study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food (Alexander Bertuccioli, 2020), found that Berberine has been shown to effectively lower both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

    In addition to its effects on blood sugar and cholesterol levels, Berberine may also have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. A study published in 2022 (Chen et al., 2022), found that Berberine was observed to decrease inflammation in rats that were suffering from acute lung injury. Another study published in 2015 (Peng et al., 2015), found that Berberine was effective in inhibiting the growth of several bacterial and fungal strains.

  7. Conclusion

    Summary of the Potential Benefits of Berberine

    Berberine is a natural substance found in certain plants such as goldenseal, barberry, and Oregon grape, that has shown promise in providing several health benefits. One of its potential benefits is its ability to improve insulin sensitivity, which can result in the lowering of blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    • Reducing inflammation: Berberine has anti-inflammatory properties that may help reduce inflammation in the body.
    • Lowering cholesterol levels: Berberine has the ability to lower total cholesterol levels, as well as LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and triglycerides.
    • Improving heart health: Berberine may have a protective effect on the heart, potentially reducing the risk of heart disease.
    • Supporting weight loss: Berberine can help with weight loss by boosting metabolism and reducing fat accumulation.
    • Supporting gut health: Berberine has been shown to have antimicrobial properties that can help treat various gut infections, including diarrhea and small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
    • Supporting brain health: Berberine may help improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

    Future Research Directions And Potential Applications Of Berberine In Improving Health And Wellness

    • Metabolic Disorders: Berberine has demonstrated promise in improving glucose and lipid metabolism and has potential in managing metabolic conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Further studies could investigate the mechanisms underlying Berberine’s effects and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of long-term Berberine use in humans.
    • Cardiovascular Health: Berberine exhibits potential in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels, which can contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Further research could examine the potential of Berberine in enhancing heart health by investigating its impact on blood vessel function, heart muscle health, and protection against heart attacks and strokes.
    • Gut Health: Studies have shown that Berberine possesses antimicrobial properties and may help maintain a healthy gut microbiome. Further research could explore its potential in treating gastrointestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as its overall impact on gut health.
    • Cancer Prevention: Research has suggested that Berberine has anti-cancer properties and has the potential to inhibit the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. Future studies could delve into the mechanisms by which Berberine accomplishes this and its viability as an adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment.
    • Brain Health: Research has suggested that Berberine has the potential to enhance cognitive function and prevent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Further studies could be conducted to investigate the specific mechanisms through which Berberine influences brain function and to explore its potential as a treatment for various brain-related conditions.


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Team PainAssist
Written, Edited or Reviewed By: Team PainAssist, Pain Assist Inc. This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer
Last Modified On:April 4, 2023

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