Mood disorder is a mental illness and includes various conditions such as mania, major depression, and bipolar disorder. The condition is presented by the symptoms such as irritability, loss of weight, loss of appetite and suicidal and homicidal thoughts.
What Is A Mood Disorder In Adults?
Mood disorder is a mental disorder related to the altered state of mood or distorted mood. Following are the types of mood disorders found in adults:
Bipolar Disorder. This condition is defined by the presence of mood shifting in the patients. The patient’s mood rapidly shifts from the mania or elevated mood to low mood or major depression. Bipolar disorder is divided into bipolar disorder I and bipolar disorder II.
Major Depression. Depression is present in almost all the people, but it is for a reason and for a short time. However, when a patient suffers from chronic depression without any reason, the condition is termed as major or clinical depression.
Mania. Mania is characterized by elevated mood. The patient has increased energy and high activity. The appetite is increased, and the time of sleep reduces.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Mood swing and irritation at the time of menstrual period in women is termed as the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Depression Related To Medical Disease. The patient also suffered from mood disorder either as an effect of the disease as in hyperthyroidism or by diverting too much thought process for the disease.
Cyclothymic Disorder. This condition is similar to bipolar disorder, but the severity is low as compared to bipolar disorder.
Seasonal Affective Disorder. In some patients, depression develops in a certain part of the day due to change in the season.
Persistent Depressive Disorder. It is characterized by the presence of long term symptoms of clinical depression.
Depression Due To Medications Or Other Substances. Various medications and other substances also cause depression. These include drugs such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and isotretinoin. Sometimes, depression may due to drug withdrawal.
Symptoms Of Mood Disorder
Restlessness And Irritability. Mood disorders causes restlessness and irritability in patients. The patient, especially mania, may sometimes become violent.
Weakness Or Fatigue. Patient suffering from mood disorders have an altered level of energy. For instance, the patients with depression have low energy and feels fatigue while manic patients have increased energy.
Loss Of Appetite Or Overeating. Patients with depression have reduced appetite while patients with manic have increased appetite. Bipolar disorders continuously switch between these two extremes.
Extreme Happiness And Sadness. Patient suffering from mental disorder have either presents extreme happiness or extreme sadness. These patients tend to get isolated from the society.
Insomnia. Patients suffering from mood disorders have reduced sleep and may suffer from insomnia.
Lack Of Focus And Concentration. Due to the emotional toll on the mental ability, the patient of mood disorder has reduced focus and concentration.
Reduced Rationale Thinking. The ability of the patient, suffering from a mood disorder, for rational thinking is reduced. The patient cannot take instant decisions.
Suicide And Homicide. The patient suffering from a mood disorder is at high risk of conducting suicide or homicide.
Diagnosis Of Mood Disorder
The diagnosis of mood disorder is done through the exclusionary process. The doctor will conduct preliminary testing to rule out the physiological reason for mood disorder such as hyperthyroidism or deficiency of certain vitamins and minerals. DSM criteria are applied to the diagnosis of the type of mental disorder. Further, mood chart and psychiatric evaluation are also done to diagnose mood disorder.
Treatment Of Mood Disorder
Mood disorders can be treated with both medications and psychotherapy. Antidepressants such as citalopram or paroxetine, mood stabilizer such as lamotrigine and antipsychotics such as aripiprazole are generally used for the treatment. Various psychotherapies such as interpersonal therapy, problem-solving therapy, and cognitive therapy are used.
The diagnosis of mood disorder is done through physiological evaluation to exclude secondary cause. Mood chart and psychiatric evaluation are also done. Treatment includes medication and psychotherapies.
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