Molar pregnancy is a condition characterized by the development of a mole (abnormal cells) instead of a viable baby in the period of pregnancy. It is formed due to an improper exchange of genetic material between sperm and ovum during fertilization. It occurs mostly in women who are in the age below 20 or above 35 years. It is a rare condition. It exhibits the symptoms of normal pregnancy. It can be cured successfully with many treatment options available with good prognosis.
What Is The Prognosis For Molar Pregnancy?
The prognosis of molar pregnancy is usually good. It can be cured successfully with treatment options available. It does not even influence the next pregnancy. The affected mother can get pregnant again. The risk of getting another molar pregnancy is 1 in 80 pregnancies. Next molar pregnancy in the same women can be prevented by avoiding next pregnancy after a molar pregnancy for 6 months to one year or as suggested by her physician.
Only 15 out of 100 women who have complete moles and 1 in 200 women who have partial moles can develop a condition named gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In this condition, the moles extend deep into the uterus. These may cause the development of tumors in the uterus. These tumors can migrate to distant parts of the body. It is seen more in cases where women had complete moles. It can be managed efficiently by many treatment options available such as chemotherapy, radial therapy or hysterectomy. About 98% of cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia can be treated successfully. No women die from molar pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
Molar pregnancy is a form of pregnancy in which a group of abnormal cells grows in the uterus instead of a viable fetus. These abnormal cells are called hydatidiform mole. The abnormal mass or fetus develops by itself. It is formed when a certain amount of genetic information is not coded in the fertilized egg or the exchange of genes and chromosomes is not proper between the sperm and ova during fertilization. It is formed due to deletion or inactivity of chromosomes of the mother and addition of all chromosomes of the father.
Types Of Molar Pregnancy
There are two types of molar pregnancy-
Complete Molar Pregnancy. It is represented by the growth of the mass of abnormal mass in placenta instead of a fetus.
Partial Molar Pregnancy. Partial molar pregnancy is represented by a growth of abnormal mass that transforms into a fetus. But, this abnormal fetus cannot survive or grow into a baby.
Symptoms Of Molar Pregnancy
Molar pregnancy does not have different signs and symptoms than a normal pregnancy. It is detected during a normal ultrasound scan done at 8-14 weeks after a miscarriage. In certain cases, it may have certain symptoms like
- Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester
- Severe morning sickness
- Abnormal growth of the abdomen
- Pain in the pelvic region
- Expulsion of some grapes like cyst from the vagina
Diagnosis Of Molar Pregnancy
Diagnosis of molar pregnancy can be established by following tests-
- The levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin in blood are measured in routine pregnancy tests. Its high levels are seen in molar pregnancy.
- Ultrasound scan confirms molar pregnancy and the presence of moles with images of content in the uterus.
- X-rays, CT scan and MRI scan help to find out the possibility of migration of molar cells to the chest, abdomen, brain, and pelvis.
Treatment For Molar Pregnancy
It can be treated by dilatation and curettage, chemotherapy and surgical removal of the uterus.
Molar pregnancy is a rare complication of pregnancy in which fertilized egg does not grow properly into a viable fetus. A group of abnormal cells resembling a bunch of grapes develop in the womb in its place. It can be easily managed with many treatment options available. The prognosis of molar pregnancy is good.
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