Vaccines are specific medicines administered to human to prevent various types of illness. If not for vaccines, there would be a widespread occurrence of several easily preventable diseases. Newborns usually have antibodies, passed on from their mother to prevent certain types of diseases from occurring. Immunization or vaccination is a simple way with which parents can ensure that their child continues to get protection against diseases. Parents must consult with the pediatrician to find out what vaccines are required and when to administer that to the child. Keeping track of the various vaccines is important to ensure that the child gets the required dosage and shot on time.

Vaccines for Different Childhood Diseases

Vaccines for Different Childhood Diseases – its Symptoms and Effects on Children

  • Typhoid: Caused by bacteria, symptoms for Typhoid includes headache, rose-colored spots on chest, high fever, constipation or diarrhea, enlarged spleen and liver. Immunization can easily prevent Typhoid from occurring in children.
  • Polio: Polio is a very infectious viral disease that usually affects young children. Symptoms include headache, vomiting, fever, fatigue and stiffness in the neck. Polio can lead to paralysis in some cases, which is usually permanent. There is no cure for polio and the only way of preventing is through vaccination.
  • Hepatitis A: It is a viral liver disease. Patients suffering from Hepatitis A may sometimes not exhibit any symptoms at all. Babies and small children can show mild-flu like symptoms. Hepatitis A is spread through direct contact with an infected person or through unhygienic food and water. This disease is rarely dangerous and can be prevented through vaccination.
  • Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B is also a viral disease that affects the liver. Symptoms for this disease may not appear for six months. Some of the early symptoms can include – fever, loss of appetite, aches in muscles and joints, fatigue, yellowish skin, nausea and vomiting and dark urine. This disease spreads through contact of body fluid with the infected person.
  • Measles: It is a common childhood infection and can be easily prevented through vaccine. This disease is very infectious and can spread when an affected person sneezes or coughs. Symptoms start with cold and fever and rashes erupt after two days. If not treated early, it can lead to bronchitis and ear infection.
  • Tuberculosis: Commonly known as TB, this disease mainly affects the lungs, but sometimes it can also attack other organs. In kids, the first stage of Tuberculosis generally does not produce any symptoms. Usually this disease is diagnosed by tuberculin skin test. If the primary infection is not treated the disease can spread on to the lungs. In this stage, symptoms like cough, loss of weight and appetite, fatigue and fever are visible. If not treated timely TB can become chronic and persist for years.

Different Vaccines for Children

Some of the diseases mentioned above can be easily prevented with timely administration of vaccination. Apart from those diseases, there are several other diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. Some of the vaccines given routinely to children for preventing diseases include -

  • Typhoid vaccine
  • Diphtheria Vaccine
  • Tetanus Vaccine
  • Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccine
  • Chickenpox Vaccine
  • Meningococcal Vaccine
  • Vaccines for Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed (DTaP)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine (Hib)
  • Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (Tdap)
  • Hepatitis A Vaccine
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine
  • Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (HPV)
  • Influenza Vaccine
  • Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine (MMR)
  • OPV (oral polio) and IPV (injectable polio vaccine)
  • Rotavirus vaccine

Vaccines for Older Children or Adolescents

Apart from the recommended vaccination for children, there are several other vaccines available for older children and adolescents. The vaccine schedule contains the name of the vaccine and the age in which it is to be given to the child. Some of the vaccines for adolescents or older children along with the age are listed below:

Vaccines for 7 to 10 Year Old Children

  • Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (Tdap)
  • Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (MCV4)

Vaccines for 11 to 12 year Old Children

  • Influenza Vaccine
  • Hepatitis A Vaccine
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine
  • Varicella Vaccine
  • Pneumococcal Vaccine
  • Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine
  • Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (MCV4)
  • Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine
  • Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

Vaccines for 13 – 18 years of Children/Adolescents

  • Tdap
  • HPV
  • MCV4

Vaccines Schedule for Children and Adolescents

Vaccine or immunization schedules can be easily obtained from the pediatrician. There is a recommended vaccine schedule that is adopted by most countries. The schedule is a simple way for parents to ensure that their child gets the recommended vaccines on time. It is very important for parents to follow the vaccines as this helps them in keeping their child safe against various diseases. Children are usually given 24 vaccines to keep them safe from various diseases. Parents must ensure that they do not miss even a single dose.

The vaccine schedule is specifically designed to give the body ample time to absorb the different medicines. Vaccines are given to a child right after birth and continued for some years. Vaccine schedules come in an easy and user-friendly format and anyone can use and consult it. If the child shows any adverse reaction to the vaccine, parents must immediately consult the doctor.

Common Side Effects of Vaccines in Children

Parents usually worry about the high number of vaccines prescribed for children. However, there is no need to worry as a number of researches are being done in this field and it is found to be extremely safe for children. Like other medicines, vaccines can also have certain side effects; however, it is very rare for children to show any major side effect due to vaccines. Some of the common side effects of vaccines in children include –

  • Mild to heavy fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Pain, redness and swelling in the injection site.

These side effects of vaccine usually subside in a day or two. Parents must understand that the minor side effects are nothing compared to what the children will suffer if the vaccines are not given on time. However, if the child shows major side effects or symptoms like seizures, pneumonia, severe allergic reaction, swelling around the mouth and face, the doctor must be consulted immediately. Usually doctors prescribe medications for the common side effects. These medicines can be given to the child if the symptoms appear.

Conclusion

Vaccines have successfully helped in preventing various types of diseases among children, all over the world. Many studies have shown that the benefits of vaccination are far too many and must not be avoided at any cost. It is recommended that kids get combination vaccines instead of single ones to reduce the number of shots they get. Children usually show mild symptoms of the side effects of a vaccine, but this is easily treatable. Parents having any doubts and confusion must immediately consult the doctor. Every child reacts differently to vaccine, some children do not experience any side effects at all. However, some of them do but it subsides within a day or two. Vaccines are the simplest way of making sure that children lead a healthy and disease free life.

Written, Edited or Reviewed By:

, MD, FFARCSI

Last Modified On: June 27, 2016

Pain Assist Inc.

Pramod Kerkar
  Note: Information provided is not a substitute for physician, hospital or any form of medical care. Examination and Investigation is necessary for correct diagnosis.

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